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6600, Kardzhali,
bul. "Bulgaria", ¹41
Municipality of Kardzhali

Hot line:
(0361) 6-73-19
major: (0361) 6-73-02
faks: (0361) 6-29-68
municipality@kardjali.bg
mayor@kardjali.bg

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AIR QUALITY

IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

FOR KARDZHALI MUNICIPALITY

YEAR 2004  

 

                                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

². Introduction ………………………………………………………………

2

 

 

²². Access to information ……………………………………

2

 

 

1. References…………………………………………………

2

 

 

2. Laws and Regultion …………………………………………………

3

 

 

3. Work Programme…………………………………………………………

10

 

 

²²². General description of the region ………………………………………

11

 

 

1. Physical map of the town of Kardzhali ………………………

11

 

 

2. Physical and geographical characteristics of the region …………………………

13

 

 

2.1 Relief characteristics………………………………………………………………

13

 

 

2.2 Geological bedrock………………………………………………………

13

 

 

2.3 Mineral  and basic raw material resources…………………………………………

14

 

 

2.4 Surface and underground waters………………………………………

14

 

 

2.5 Soil information…………………………………………………………………

15

 

 

2.6 Vegetation………………………………………………

16

 

 

2.7 Climate…………………………………………………………………

17

 

 

3. Human health status in the town of Kardzhali………………………

18

 

 

3.1. Demographic indicators and air pollution…………………

18

 

 

3.2. Certain pollutants’ influence on human health…….……………

19

 

 

3.3. Human health status in the town of Kardzhali. Morbidity rates and air pollution …………………………………………

21

 

 

3.4 Biological monitoring of lead and cadmium…………………………

31

 

 

3.5. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin ……………………………………

33

 

 

²V. Authorities responsible for carrying out the management of the air quality …………..……

35

 

 

V. Industrial sources of air pollution and existing pollution control devices

37

 

 

1. “LZC” Plc..…………………………………………………………………

37

 

 

2. “Bentonite” Plc.……………………………………………………………

42

 

 

3. “Gorubso – Kardzhali” Jsc…………………………………………………

43

 

 

V². Linear air pollution sources ……………………………

54

 

 

V²². Air pollution source……………………………………………

59

 

 

V²²². “ SWOT ”- Analysis ………………………………………………………………

74

 

 

• Analysis of strengths and weaknesses……………………………………

74

 

 

• Analysis of opportunities and threats ………………………………

78

 

 

• Strategic positioning – identifying the management activities on air quality…………………………………


78

 

 

²Õ. Action Plan 2005 - 2010 ………………………………………………

80

 

 

Õ. Update, report and control of the implementation of Air quality improvement programme in Kardzhali Municipality  ………………


85

 

 

• Update …………………………………………………………

85

 

 

• Report………………………………………………………

85

 

 

• Control……………………………………………………………………

85

 

 

 

 

 

 

V²²². “ SWOT ” - Analysis

 

 

The analysis of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the external factors, or the so called SWOT Analysis, has been carried out after the implementation of the Analysis on the existing air quality and the status of the factors that cause its pollution. Within these analyses, the following ones have been summarized and studied in details:  

 

•  Air quality monitoring data for the period 1999-2002;

•  Demographic and health survey of the population for the period 2001-2003;

•  Region’s air-related climate features;

•  Different emission sources;

•  Different sources’ influence on the air quality, according to measurements made at the stations in RIEW in the town of Haskovo, where the emissions of major polluting substances were measured, and also according to reports on inspections that RIEW-Haskovo carried out in the very companies.

•  Laws and regulations;

   

 

1.Analysis of strengths and weaknesses

 

1.1.Factors concerning the physical geography and the climate of the region

 

Weaknesses:

•  Kardzhali region’s valley-form relief, as well as the high percentage of calm weather days (63%) create conditions for inversions, which turn out to be factors which keep the pollutants in the close-to-the-ground air layer.      

•  The existence of local close-to-the-ground air flow along the valley of Arda River carries considerable importance as far as the formation of the high potential of the nature is concerned. This air flow is East-West oriented and it paves the way for the accumulation and summation of pollutants in the air basin of the town.

•  Winter is the one season which abounds in fog, which on the other hand, is a good factor for keeping pollutants in the close-to-the ground air layer.  

•  The comparatively high summer and winter temperatures contribute to the increase of air pollution, and especially the emissions from low sources.  

 

 

1.2. Current air quality

 

Strengths

•  There has been noticed decrease in the average annual concentrations of all indicators that are being kept track of as far as Kardzhali’s air quality is concerned;  

•  According to the statistics for the last three years, there is no notice of systematic increase in dust rates during winter months, despite the fact that the majority of the population use solid fuel for heating.

Weaknesses

•  The average 24-h cadmium rates in 18% of the measured data for year 2003 in the town of Kardzhali (which is 44 days from a total of 248), exceed the average 24-h norms 2 to 16 times;

•  The average annual cadmium rates in the air of the town of Kardzhali exceed about 6 times the average annual standards. For years 2002 and 2003, the average annual rates exceed 1.4 to 2 times the standard norms, despite the extremely decreased lead production during this period.  

•  In 18% of the samples (135 out of 744 analyzed samples) from year 2003 in the town of Kardzhali, the average 24-h lead rates exceed the standard average annual rates.  

•  The average annual lead rates are above the standard rates, except for the ones from year 2002 and 2003. The low rates from year 2002 and 2003 are due to the sudden decrease in annual lead production. For year 2002, the actual lead production is 21% of the maximum productivity, while for year 2003 it is 30%.

•  Episodic measurements of air pollution in the village of Ostrovitsa indicate that there has been noticed an increase in the concentration of all indicators for air quality.  

•  There exist considerable lead and cadmium rate discrepancies between air and emissions. The standard rate for cadmium concentration in the air conforms to the health risk norms, and it is 0,00002 mg/m3, while the cadmium  emission rate is 0,20 mg/m3, in other words there exists disparity of 10 000 times.

•  The average annual sulphur dioxide rates, except the ones for years 2002 and 2003, are above the average annual rates which are 0,500 mg/m3. Since year 2000, annual sulphur dioxide rates do not exists, and there are just 24-h average and 1-h average rates.  

 

 

1.3.Industrial sources and home heating

 

Strengths  

•  Industry is concentrated in industrial zones;

•  Industrial sources of air pollution have at their disposal chimneys with suitable release parameters;

•  For the last two years, the amount of lead emissions has decreased considerably, particularly in year 2003. In year 2002, these amounts decrease significantly and remain almost the same during year 2003, however, despite all this, the higher rates during winter months are still present. In very rare cases rates exceed the standard three or four times.  

 

Weaknesses

•  Great part of the town is located in a “sanitary-protective zone” of “LZC” Plc. , which is 3000 m. Town’s nearest residential buildings are 1200 m away, while the village of Ostrovitsa is just 900 m away;   

•  “Gorubso - Kardzhali” Jsc. is almost in the very centre of the town;

•  The carried out “PLUME” model assessment of exposure to dust, sulphur dioxide, lead and cadmium emitted by the classified sources in the town of Kardzhali, shows that the presence of these pollutants is due mainly to the major classified sources, in other words to “LZC” Plc. and “Bentonite” Jsc.  

•  The existing control and purification devices and equipment possessed by “LZC” Plc. and “Bentonite” Jsc. are not sufficient.  

•  Air pollution with sulphur oxide emissions is mainly result of the activities of “LZC” Plc. As a result of lead production, the emitted sulphur dioxide is between 2000 and 12000 mg/m3 where the standard rate is 800 mg/m3, while as a result of sulphur acid production the emitted sulphur dioxide is between 3000 and 4000 mg/m3, where the standard rate is 800 mg/m3.    

•  There exists a deviation from the norm concerning the safe norm about cadmium emission, which is a result of the lead production of “LZC” Plc. – from 0.20 to 2.86 mg/m3, where the norm is 0.20 mg/m3.

•  Lead Aerosol Pollution caused by “LZC” Plc. exceeds about ten times the pollution caused by the amounts of lead aerosol emitted by the motor vehicles;   

•  “Meteko” air pollution control device which was purchased by the company of “Bentonite” are unable to function in the conditions in which they are used and, consequently, they turn out to be non-efficient. Non-toxic dust with rates of 1500 – 2800 mg/m3 has been emitted, despite the fact that the standard is 150mg/m3;  

•  “Tailings pond – Kardzhali 2” has an irrigation installation which is non-efficient, and when the wind speed is higher this results wind’s blowing the dust all over the town;

•  “LZC” Plc.’s own monitoring system is not calibrated and has no record-keeping memory;

•  Air pollution sanctions are low and do not motivate the companies to invest in new air pollution control devices;

•  There exist great dynamics in terms of different fuel types which the population uses for home heating;

•  The approval of “LZC” Plc.’s proposal for a new hazardous waste landfill has been delayed;  

 

1.4. Linear air pollution sources – transport and road networks

 

Strengths

•  The majority of the population prefer taxi transport, which uses propane-butane;

•  Most people use propane-butane for their cars;  

•  42% of the population prefers to go on foot;  

•  The majority of the companies ensure bus ride home for the personnel;  

•  Town’s road-network is well-developed, with wide roads and pavements. Main roads are dual carriageways; 

 

Weaknesses

•  The buses of the Public Transport do not meet the requirements of the European Standards, in accordance with EU-Directive 91/542/EEC; Public transport fleet is very old; it is in a poor condition and is gradually becoming obsolete; it is not environment-friendly, with hazardous emissions. High value of investments will be needed for its modernization;

•  Bad organization of the schedule and the fixed-route system; low hygiene standards in the buses;

•  Permanent structure of the road-traffic, cars are predominant;

•  Transport-related air pollution is mainly of the carbon dioxide type, which is ten times higher than carbon dioxide emissions of indutrial character;

•  Nitric oxide emissions from transport exceed two times the standard;  

•  Volatile organic compounds from transport exceed 36 times the standard, which is the biggest median value on these criteria;

 

 

1.5. Demographic data and health status of the population

 

Weaknesses

•  The changes in the demographic characteristics are unfavourable;

•  Death rate of the population in Kardzhali tends to increase;

•  Infant morbidity rate increases, especially as far as endocrine and nervous system diseases,  metabolism and nutrition are concerned;  

•  Increase of problems faced during pregnancy, birth and post-natal period;  

•  Diseases of Blood and Blood-forming organs do not tend to increase; however, they remain at rates that are two to three times higher that the average for the country;  

•  Diseases of Blood circulation tend to increase over and over again, and they almost reach the average rates for the whole country;  

 

Strengths

    • In recent years, the town is among the first ones in the list in terms of birth rates;  
    • Infant morbidity due to Blood circulation diseases has slightly decreased;

 

 

1.6. Urban Planning, Landscape Design

 

Strengths

•  The road network includes road-side planting;  

•  Residential districts consisting mainly of houses abound in decorative and young fruit trees;

•  The company which carries out the maintenance of public areas has been asked to carry out this service more frequently;  

•  In this town, there are considerably large green areas in square meters per head - 22,64 m2/person – 3 parks have been created and the areas between the apartments in the residential districts is well maintained.  

 

Weaknesses

•  “Vazrojdentsi” residential district, which is the area where almost 40% of town’s population live, has no park and there aren’t enough trees;  

•  In town areas with greater density of buildings, the wind blows with a lower speed and this is a prerequisite for air pollutants to remain in the close-to-the-ground air layer;

•  There does not exist a developed “green belt” area between the industrial zones and the town;

•  Insufficient attention is paid to the reconstruction of the green system;

•  “Prostor” park has fallen victim to vandalism, while the trees are being cut down in winter months;  

 

1.7. Monitoring, control and reports on Air Quality

 

Strengths

•  There are 3 monitoring stations in the town of Kardzhali.

 

Weaknesses

•  There are no automatic air quality monitoring stations;

•  Currently non-efficient air quality monitoring systems in the enterprises;

•  The air pollution sources, which are forced by law to carry out incessant measurements of their emissions, do not implement this activity yet.

 

2. Analysis of opportunities and threats  

 

Opportunities

 

•  Administration and enforcement of the new Environmental Protection Legislation, as well as issuing complex permits to existing companies – “LZC” Plc.

• National and International programmes which support and finance air quality improvement activities.

 

 

 

Threats

 

•  There is no public awareness in terms of supporting the air quality protection efforts;

•  Low increase in the growth of economic indicators;

•  Lack of financial means in the field of production, necessary for air quality protection;

 

3. Defining the strategic objective and the specific objectives in terms of Air Quality Management

Based on the executed SWOT analysis, the overall objectives concerning the future improvement of the air quality in Kardzhali region have been defined. The major strengths that have to be preserved and improved, as well as the major weaknesses /problems/ that are about to be solved, were taken into consideration when determining the objectives. The adopted objectives and activities, necessary for the realization of these objectives, will become an integrated part of the future air quality protection programme for Kardzhali Municipality. Kardzhali Municipality’s long-term strategic objective which is set in the development programme of the municipality is “Making Kardzhali Municipality a more attractive place for living, investment and recreation”. The achievement of this objective is directly related to air quality improvement, which becomes obvious by the proposed ideas in the objectives “tree” as well:    

 

 

Strategic objective

Reducing the negative influence of the air and creating conditions for healthy lifestyle in Kardzhali Municipality.    

 

Specific objectives and sub-objectives:

•  Reaching the air quality standards in all indicators by January 1st, 2007 and maintaining them.   

•  As far as “LZC” Plc. is concerned, reaching cadmium, lead and sulphur dioxide emission rates which will ensure a concentration in the air of Kardzhali of the already mentioned pollutants lower that the permissible emission rates no later than January 1st, year 2006.   

•  As far as “Bentonite” Jsc. is concerned, reaching the standard rates in non-toxic dust emission no later than January 1st, year 2006.

•  As far as “Tailings pond Kardzhali 2” is concerned,  eliminating the chaotic air pollution with heavy metal concentrated dust by January 1st, year 2006. 

•  Reducing transport’s harmful influence on air quality by January 1st. year 2007. 

•  Reaching the emission standards on fuel burning installations by January 1st, year 2006.

•  Reducing the secondary air pollution from unclassified sources by January 1st, year 2006.   

•  Improving the air quality monitoring system and strengthening the control and readings.  

•  Start using an automatic air quality monitoring system in the town of Kardzhali by January 1st, year 2006.  

•  Setting the emission control and monitoring system in companies, in compliance with legislative requirements by January 1st, year 2006. 

•  Increasing public awareness and forming responsible behaviour as far as air pollution problems are concerned.   

•  Increasing coming generation’ awareness about the necessity of controlling the air pollution.

•  Increased awareness in terms of prevention and preventive steps for reducing the negative influence of polluted air.  

 

 

²Õ. Action Plan 2005 – 2010 

  Action Plan for Air Quality Improvement in Kardzhali Municipality, 2005 -2010

 

Actions

 

Responsible for  Implementation

Period of Implementation

Foreseen necessary means in BGN thousands

Expected results

Specific objective 1.reaching the air quality standard in all indicators by January 1st, year 2007

Sub-objective 1.1. As far as “LZC” Plc. is concerned, reaching cadmium, lead and sulphur dioxide emission rates which will ensure a concentration in the air of Kardzhali of the already mentioned pollutants below the permissible emission rates by January 1st, year 2006

Implementation of a Programme for meeting the requirements on the natural and working environment regulations for “LZC” Plc.

1.Modernization of “Sulphur acid” sactor

“LZC”

2005-2006

80

Utilization of the outgoing gas for sodium bisulphite production.

2.Starting activities which will ensure sinter production emissions’ meeting the relevant ecological requirements, through the initiation of a new sinter machine with fans, or through the initiation of a process of recirculation of the gas from the sinter machine.  

“LZC”

2006

4 000

Research is being carried out

3.Investigation of a hydro-metallurgic technology for cadmium extraction out of dust emitted by the lead production plant.

“LZC”

2005

 

Research is being carried out

4.Adopting a hydry-metallurgic technology for cadmium extraction out of the dust emitted by the lead production plants

“LZC”

2006

30

 

5.Introducing automatic self-monitoring on point source emissions and daily provision of the information on monitoring to Kardzhali Municipality. 

“LZC”

2005

15

Point source emission control

6.Certification of the Environmental Management System in compliance with 14001

“LZC”

2005

 

Documents are drawn up, certification is to follow

7.Modernization and extension of the concentrates warehouse

“LZC”

2005

120

Decreased amount of dust on the platform

8.Ventialtion of the refining boilers, using additional filter

“LZC”

2005

250

Reduced working environment pollution

9.Ventilation of the “Electrolytic” sector

“LZC”

2005

80

 

10.Regular cleaning /washing/ of the work platform in the plant

“LZC”

2005

 

Reduced secondary air pollution

11.Taking actions for reducing the unorganized emissions on plant’s territory

“LZC”

2005

 

Reduced air pollution

Sub-objective 1.2. As far as “Bentonite” Jsc. is concerned, meeting the non-toxic dust emission standards by January 1st, year 2007

Implementation of “Bentonite” Jsc.’ s minimal ecological programme

1. Recovery of the activities of the two “Meteco” dust-collectors or installation of other effective ones  in I-st sector

“Bentonite” Jsc.

2005

2006

60

20

Preventing the emission of harmful dust particles in the air

2. Installing new dust-collectors in II-nd sector

“Bentonite” Jsc.

2007

120

Preventing the emission of harmful dust particles in the air

3. Provision of milled zeolite installation with filter sleeves

“Bentonite” Jsc.

2005

15

Preventing the emission of harmful dust particles in the air

4. Cleaning the dust in first technologic line

“Bentonite” Jsc.

2005

15

Limiting the dust emission

5. Re-asphalting the roads and platforms in the region

“Bentonite” Jsc.

2005

2006

10

10

Reducing pollution in the area near the plant

6. Constructing concrete roads in “Dobrovolets - central” site

“Benotnite” Jsc.

2005

120

Reduction of spilling the materials in the region

7. Initiating dry monthly cleaning and washing of the area along “Kardzhali - Haskovo” way which is being polluted when transporting bentonite to the plant during the spring-autumn season

“Bentonite” Jsc.

2005

BGN 10 thousand/ per year

Reducing the secondary dust pollution and preventing RTA

8. Improving the dumping system of the automobiles so that wheels will not less dirty

“Bentonite” Jsc.

 

 

 

Sub-objective 1.3. As far as “Tailings pond Kardzhali 2” is concerned, eliminating the chaotic air pollution with heavy-metal concentrated dust by January 1st, 2005  

1. Drawing up a Programme for “Gorubso-Kardzhali” Plc. in order for the company to meet the environmental protection requirements

“Gorubso-Kardzhali” Plc.

2005

5

Thorough planning of the necessary activities on environmental protection

2. Carrying out activities on preventing air pollution with heavy-metal concentrated dust coming from “Tailings pond Kardzhali 2”

“Gorubso-Kardzhali” Plc.

2005

 

Reduced secondary pollution emissions

3. Initiating activities on regular cleaning /washing/ of plant’s work platform and “Zavodska” Street

“Gorubso-Kardzhali” Plc.

Kardzhali Municipality

2005

1

Reduced dust emissions

Sub-objective 1.4. Reducing transport’s harmful influence on air quality by January 1st. year 2007

1. Introducing an alternative to public transport – mini-bus transportation

Kardzhali Municipality

2006

 

Reduced emission of harmful substances

2. Observing the ecological criteria when selecting sub-agents for the public-transport in compliance with  the Public Procurement Act and establishment of a more effective public transport which takes into account the recommendations from the survey which was carried out by Kardzhali Municipality.

-new fixed-route scheme;

-changes in time-tables;

-changes in the bus-stop system;  

-improved service quality;

Kardzhali Municipality

2005

 

Public transport preferred to personal automobile. Reduced emissions of air pollutants

3.Changes in the traffic organization in the town.  Assigning the working out of a scheme for street network use and parking, as well as creating cycleways

-changes in regime of using the street network traffic;

-signalling;

-walkways;

-parking areas;

Kardzhali Municipality

2006

Design and planning BGN  15 thousand 

 

 

 

BGN 110 thousand

Standard traffic in the central part of the town. Air Quality Improvement

4. Encouraging gradually all schools in terms of cycling as being a kind of environment-friendly transport

-forming cycleways;  

-construction of parking areas for bicycles in the school areas, near the market place, the bus station and the railway station;

Kardzhali Municipality

Constant term

BGN 20 thousand

Creating habits in people so that they can use alternatives to motor transport. Reduced emission of harmful gases

5.Completing the design of the bypass road near the town of Kardzhali and project realization

Kardzhali Municipality,

MRDPW, Roads Agency

2006

2010

5 000

Reducing the pollution caused by transportation

Sub-objective 1.5. Reducing the secondary air pollution from unclassified sources by January 1st, year 2006

1. Inventory and control on secondary pollution sources on the territories of the economic operators  in the Municipality (non-planted areas, depots with easy-to-spread materials, internal communication networks) and maintenance and re-cultivation requirements on legal persons

Kardzhali Municipalityäæàëè

December, 2005

 

 

1

Collecting database and evaluating the depots in terms of secondary air pollution is concerned

2. Assigning a draft project of “Arpezos” parl and project realization

Kardzhali Municipality

2005

2008

300

3 500

Improvement of air quality and recreation opportunities

3. Improving the state of the existing parks, as well as preventing them from vandalism and poaching

 

Kardzhali Municipality

2005

150

Improving the state of the trees

  4. Improving the standards on maintaining the cleanness and hygiene in public areas – increased frequency of washing and cleaning

 

Kardzhali Municipality

 

December, 2005

 

10

 

5. Re-creating the “green belt” area between the industrial zone and the town

Kardzhali Municipality, RFM, Kardzhali

December, 2006

 

100

Improving the standardy of life in the town

Specific objective 2.Improvement of the air quality monitoring system and increased control and readings. Reducing the secondary air pollution from unclassified emission sources by January 1st, 2006. 

Sub-objective 2.1. Start using an automated air quality monitoring system in the town of Kardzhali, by January 1st, 2006.

1. Purchase and delivery of two automated air control stations 

EEA, MOEW

December, 2005

70

Gathering arbitrary information on air quality

Sub-objective 2.2. Setting the emission control and monitoring system in companies, in compliance with legislative requirements by January 1st, year 2006. 

 

1. Purchase and delivery of standard automated self-monitoring systems by “LZC” Plc.

“LZC” Pl.c

December,2005

15

Gathering arbitrary information on emissions in the air

Specific objective 3. Increasing public awareness and forming responsible behaviour as far as air pollution problems are concerned

Ïîäöåë 3.1. Ïîâèøàâàíå ñúçíàíèåòî íà ïîäðàñòâàùèòå çà íåîáõîäèìîñòòà îò îïàçâàíå êà÷åñòâîòî íà àòìîñôåðíèÿ âúçäóõ

1. Organization and realization of informational campaigns in schools

Kardzhali Municipality, RIMES

Constant

2

Establishing an active position as far as air pollution is concerned

2. Drawing up Municipal Plans for communication and discussion of transport problems – public discussions, school activities on the subject of environment-friendly transport;

Kardzhali Municipality, RIMES

Constant  

2

Increased public  awareness as far as the problems on air pollution and alternative transport are concerned 

3. Purchase and installation of an electronic board to show the air quality indicators

Kardzhali Municipality

2005

2

Increased public awareness

Sub-objective 3.2. Increased awareness in terms of prevention and preventive steps for reducing the negative influence of polluted air on human health

1. Organization and realization of campaigns among the population in order to inform people of possible prevention in cases of increased exposure to heavy metals – Kardzhali Municipality should update the information in the WEB-page. 

 

HEI-Kardzhali,

Kardzhali Municipality

Constant

4,5

Reducing the negative influence of heavy metals on human body.

 
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