FOR KARDZHALI MUNICIPALITY
V²²². “ SWOT ” - Analysis
The analysis of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the external factors, or the so called SWOT Analysis, has been carried out after the implementation of the Analysis on the existing air quality and the status of the factors that cause its pollution. Within these analyses, the following ones have been summarized and studied in details:
• Air quality monitoring data for the period 1999-2002;
• Demographic and health survey of the population for the period 2001-2003;
• Region’s air-related climate features;
• Different emission sources;
• Different sources’ influence on the air quality, according to measurements made at the stations in RIEW in the town of Haskovo, where the emissions of major polluting substances were measured, and also according to reports on inspections that RIEW-Haskovo carried out in the very companies.
• Laws and regulations;
1.1.Factors concerning the physical geography and the climate of the region
• Kardzhali region’s valley-form relief, as well as the high percentage of calm weather days (63%) create conditions for inversions, which turn out to be factors which keep the pollutants in the close-to-the-ground air layer.
• The existence of local close-to-the-ground air flow along the valley of Arda River carries considerable importance as far as the formation of the high potential of the nature is concerned. This air flow is East-West oriented and it paves the way for the accumulation and summation of pollutants in the air basin of the town.
• Winter is the one season which abounds in fog, which on the other hand, is a good factor for keeping pollutants in the close-to-the ground air layer.
• The comparatively high summer and winter temperatures contribute to the increase of air pollution, and especially the emissions from low sources.
1.2. Current air quality
• There has been noticed decrease in the average annual concentrations of all indicators that are being kept track of as far as Kardzhali’s air quality is concerned;
• According to the statistics for the last three years, there is no notice of systematic increase in dust rates during winter months, despite the fact that the majority of the population use solid fuel for heating.
• The average 24-h cadmium rates in 18% of the measured data for year 2003 in the town of Kardzhali (which is 44 days from a total of 248), exceed the average 24-h norms 2 to 16 times;
• The average annual cadmium rates in the air of the town of Kardzhali exceed about 6 times the average annual standards. For years 2002 and 2003, the average annual rates exceed 1.4 to 2 times the standard norms, despite the extremely decreased lead production during this period.
• In 18% of the samples (135 out of 744 analyzed samples) from year 2003 in the town of Kardzhali, the average 24-h lead rates exceed the standard average annual rates.
• The average annual lead rates are above the standard rates, except for the ones from year 2002 and 2003. The low rates from year 2002 and 2003 are due to the sudden decrease in annual lead production. For year 2002, the actual lead production is 21% of the maximum productivity, while for year 2003 it is 30%.
• Episodic measurements of air pollution in the village of Ostrovitsa indicate that there has been noticed an increase in the concentration of all indicators for air quality.
• There exist considerable lead and cadmium rate discrepancies between air and emissions. The standard rate for cadmium concentration in the air conforms to the health risk norms, and it is 0,00002 mg/m3, while the cadmium emission rate is 0,20 mg/m3, in other words there exists disparity of 10 000 times.
• The average annual sulphur dioxide rates, except the ones for years 2002 and 2003, are above the average annual rates which are 0,500 mg/m3. Since year 2000, annual sulphur dioxide rates do not exists, and there are just 24-h average and 1-h average rates.
1.3.Industrial sources and home heating
• Industry is concentrated in industrial zones;
• Industrial sources of air pollution have at their disposal chimneys with suitable release parameters;
• For the last two years, the amount of lead emissions has decreased considerably, particularly in year 2003. In year 2002, these amounts decrease significantly and remain almost the same during year 2003, however, despite all this, the higher rates during winter months are still present. In very rare cases rates exceed the standard three or four times.
• Great part of the town is located in a “sanitary-protective zone” of “LZC” Plc. , which is 3000 m. Town’s nearest residential buildings are 1200 m away, while the village of Ostrovitsa is just 900 m away;
• “Gorubso - Kardzhali” Jsc. is almost in the very centre of the town;
• The carried out “PLUME” model assessment of exposure to dust, sulphur dioxide, lead and cadmium emitted by the classified sources in the town of Kardzhali, shows that the presence of these pollutants is due mainly to the major classified sources, in other words to “LZC” Plc. and “Bentonite” Jsc.
• The existing control and purification devices and equipment possessed by “LZC” Plc. and “Bentonite” Jsc. are not sufficient.
• Air pollution with sulphur oxide emissions is mainly result of the activities of “LZC” Plc. As a result of lead production, the emitted sulphur dioxide is between 2000 and 12000 mg/m3 where the standard rate is 800 mg/m3, while as a result of sulphur acid production the emitted sulphur dioxide is between 3000 and 4000 mg/m3, where the standard rate is 800 mg/m3.
• There exists a deviation from the norm concerning the safe norm about cadmium emission, which is a result of the lead production of “LZC” Plc. – from 0.20 to 2.86 mg/m3, where the norm is 0.20 mg/m3.
• Lead Aerosol Pollution caused by “LZC” Plc. exceeds about ten times the pollution caused by the amounts of lead aerosol emitted by the motor vehicles;
• “Meteko” air pollution control device which was purchased by the company of “Bentonite” are unable to function in the conditions in which they are used and, consequently, they turn out to be non-efficient. Non-toxic dust with rates of 1500 – 2800 mg/m3 has been emitted, despite the fact that the standard is 150mg/m3;
• “Tailings pond – Kardzhali 2” has an irrigation installation which is non-efficient, and when the wind speed is higher this results wind’s blowing the dust all over the town;
• “LZC” Plc.’s own monitoring system is not calibrated and has no record-keeping memory;
• Air pollution sanctions are low and do not motivate the companies to invest in new air pollution control devices;
• There exist great dynamics in terms of different fuel types which the population uses for home heating;
• The approval of “LZC” Plc.’s proposal for a new hazardous waste landfill has been delayed;
1.4. Linear air pollution sources – transport and road networks
• The majority of the population prefer taxi transport, which uses propane-butane;
• Most people use propane-butane for their cars;
• 42% of the population prefers to go on foot;
• The majority of the companies ensure bus ride home for the personnel;
• Town’s road-network is well-developed, with wide roads and pavements. Main roads are dual carriageways;
• The buses of the Public Transport do not meet the requirements of the European Standards, in accordance with EU-Directive 91/542/EEC; Public transport fleet is very old; it is in a poor condition and is gradually becoming obsolete; it is not environment-friendly, with hazardous emissions. High value of investments will be needed for its modernization;
• Bad organization of the schedule and the fixed-route system; low hygiene standards in the buses;
• Permanent structure of the road-traffic, cars are predominant;
• Transport-related air pollution is mainly of the carbon dioxide type, which is ten times higher than carbon dioxide emissions of indutrial character;
• Nitric oxide emissions from transport exceed two times the standard;
• Volatile organic compounds from transport exceed 36 times the standard, which is the biggest median value on these criteria;
1.5. Demographic data and health status of the population
• The changes in the demographic characteristics are unfavourable;
• Death rate of the population in Kardzhali tends to increase;
• Infant morbidity rate increases, especially as far as endocrine and nervous system diseases, metabolism and nutrition are concerned;
• Increase of problems faced during pregnancy, birth and post-natal period;
• Diseases of Blood and Blood-forming organs do not tend to increase; however, they remain at rates that are two to three times higher that the average for the country;
• Diseases of Blood circulation tend to increase over and over again, and they almost reach the average rates for the whole country;
1.6. Urban Planning, Landscape Design
• The road network includes road-side planting;
• Residential districts consisting mainly of houses abound in decorative and young fruit trees;
• The company which carries out the maintenance of public areas has been asked to carry out this service more frequently;
• In this town, there are considerably large green areas in square meters per head - 22,64 m2/person – 3 parks have been created and the areas between the apartments in the residential districts is well maintained.
• “Vazrojdentsi” residential district, which is the area where almost 40% of town’s population live, has no park and there aren’t enough trees;
• In town areas with greater density of buildings, the wind blows with a lower speed and this is a prerequisite for air pollutants to remain in the close-to-the-ground air layer;
• There does not exist a developed “green belt” area between the industrial zones and the town;
• Insufficient attention is paid to the reconstruction of the green system;
• “Prostor” park has fallen victim to vandalism, while the trees are being cut down in winter months;
1.7. Monitoring, control and reports on Air Quality
• There are 3 monitoring stations in the town of Kardzhali.
• There are no automatic air quality monitoring stations;
• Currently non-efficient air quality monitoring systems in the enterprises;
2. Analysis of opportunities and threats
• Administration and enforcement of the new Environmental Protection Legislation, as well as issuing complex permits to existing companies – “LZC” Plc.
• National and International programmes which support and finance air quality improvement activities.
• There is no public awareness in terms of supporting the air quality protection efforts;
• Low increase in the growth of economic indicators;
• Lack of financial means in the field of production, necessary for air quality protection;
Based on the executed SWOT analysis, the overall objectives concerning the future improvement of the air quality in Kardzhali region have been defined. The major strengths that have to be preserved and improved, as well as the major weaknesses /problems/ that are about to be solved, were taken into consideration when determining the objectives. The adopted objectives and activities, necessary for the realization of these objectives, will become an integrated part of the future air quality protection programme for Kardzhali Municipality. Kardzhali Municipality’s long-term strategic objective which is set in the development programme of the municipality is “Making Kardzhali Municipality a more attractive place for living, investment and recreation”. The achievement of this objective is directly related to air quality improvement, which becomes obvious by the proposed ideas in the objectives “tree” as well:
Reducing the negative influence of the air and creating conditions for healthy lifestyle in Kardzhali Municipality.
Specific objectives and sub-objectives:
• Reaching the air quality standards in all indicators by January 1st, 2007 and maintaining them.
• As far as “LZC” Plc. is concerned, reaching cadmium, lead and sulphur dioxide emission rates which will ensure a concentration in the air of Kardzhali of the already mentioned pollutants lower that the permissible emission rates no later than January 1st, year 2006.
• As far as “Bentonite” Jsc. is concerned, reaching the standard rates in non-toxic dust emission no later than January 1st, year 2006.
• As far as “Tailings pond Kardzhali 2” is concerned, eliminating the chaotic air pollution with heavy metal concentrated dust by January 1st, year 2006.
• Reducing transport’s harmful influence on air quality by January 1st. year 2007.
• Reaching the emission standards on fuel burning installations by January 1st, year 2006.
• Reducing the secondary air pollution from unclassified sources by January 1st, year 2006.
• Improving the air quality monitoring system and strengthening the control and readings.
• Start using an automatic air quality monitoring system in the town of Kardzhali by January 1st, year 2006.
• Setting the emission control and monitoring system in companies, in compliance with legislative requirements by January 1st, year 2006.
• Increasing public awareness and forming responsible behaviour as far as air pollution problems are concerned.
• Increasing coming generation’ awareness about the necessity of controlling the air pollution.
• Increased awareness in terms of prevention and preventive steps for reducing the negative influence of polluted air.
²Õ. Action Plan 2005 – 2010
Action Plan for Air Quality Improvement in Kardzhali Municipality, 2005 -2010